Subscribe to RSS feed



Sep 22

Tax Connections Newsletter – Fall 2017

Fall 2017

How to Claim Research Payroll Credits
Rob Swenson, CPA, MST

If a business dedicates resources to creating or improving products, processes or software, it may be eligible for substantial federal tax credits for increasing research activities. However, the company must have sufficient federal tax liability to offset the credit in order to receive the benefits. Historically, that meant income tax liability, but qualifying small businesses may now elect to apply their research credit of up to $250,000 in payroll taxes. This article provides details on how to claim a research payroll credit. A Sidebar explains how a business can claim the credit on its 2016 return.


Recent History
The Protecting Americans from Tax Hikes (PATH) Act of 2015 not only made the research credit permanent, but also it created the payroll tax election for the research credit (often referred to as the research and development, R&D or research and experimentation credit). IRS Notice 2017-23 provides interim guidance on claiming research credits against payroll taxes. In addition to clarifying the eligibility requirements and outlining the procedures for making the election, the IRS allows companies that failed to make the payroll tax credit election on their 2016 return to take advantage of the credit by filing an amended return on or before December 31, 2017.

Is Your Business Eligible?
Research payroll tax credits are intended to provide relief to smaller businesses, particularly startups that invest heavily in research and development, but have little or no income tax liability. Although unused credits may be carried forward up to 20 years, payroll tax credits allow these businesses to enjoy the benefits of research credits when they need them most, rather than wait until they begin to generate taxable income.

The PATH Act makes payroll tax credits available to qualified small businesses, which are defined as those with less than $5 million in gross receipts in the current taxable year and no gross receipts for any taxable year preceding the five-year period ending with the current taxable year. For example, a business making the payroll tax credit election for 2017 must not have had any gross receipts before 2013.

For the purposes of determining whether a corporation (including an S corporation) or partnership (including a limited liability company taxed as a partnership) is a qualified small business, Notice 2017-23 clarifies that gross receipts include:

  • Total sales, net of returns and allowances;
  • All amounts received for services; and
  • Income from investments and other outside sources.

For businesses other than corporations and partnerships, gross receipts include all of a person’s aggregate gross receipts from all trades or businesses. The IRS does not establish a de minimis test for gross receipts. Therefore, unless the IRS provides additional guidance, a business with minimal gross receipts prior to the five-year period is ineligible. The IRS also requires members of a controlled group to aggregate their gross receipts for purposes of the $5 million threshold.

How to Claim Payroll Tax Credits
To take advantage of payroll tax credits, you must make the election by filing Form 6765, Credit for Increasing Research Activities, with your business income tax returns. You may elect to apply some or all of your research credit against the employer portion of Social Security taxes. After you make the election, you may use your research credit to offset payroll taxes quarterly, starting with the first calendar quarter that begins after you file your federal income tax return. To claim the credit, you must file Form 8974, Qualified Small Business Payroll Tax Credit for Increasing Research Activities, and Form 941, Employer’s Quarterly Federal Tax Return, for that quarter. The maximum payroll tax credit is $250,000 per year (with special rules for allocating that amount among members of a controlled group). In addition, you may not make a payroll tax credit election in more than five tax years. To the extent that your credit exceeds your Social Security tax liability in a given calendar quarter, you may carry the excess forward and use it as a credit against Social Security tax in the succeeding calendar quarter (subject to the annual five-year limits).

Stay Tuned
The payroll tax credit is a valuable tax break for businesses that would not benefit currently from the research credit. The IRS may provide additional guidance that affects your eligibility for the credit, so be sure to monitor for future updates on the subject.

Sidebar: Not Too Late for 2016
It is not too late for your business to make a payroll tax credit election on its 2016 return. IRS Notice 2017-23 offers relief to qualified small businesses that filed their 2016 returns on time but did not make the election, provided they make the election on an amended return filed on or before December 31, 2017. To qualify for the extension, your business must include Form 6765, Credit for Increasing Research Activities, with its amended return and indicate at the top of the form that it is filed pursuant to Notice 2017-23. You may also attach a statement to Form 6765 stating that the form is filed according to Notice 2017-23. For Illinois taxpayers, the state research and development credit has been retroactively restored for 2016 with the new Illinois budget passed in July. If you have previously filed your 2016 tax return and did not claim the research and development credit, then you can do so on an amended return.

For more information, please contact Rob Swenson at, or call him at 312.670.7444. Visit to learn more about our State and Local Tax Services.
© 2017

Restricted Stock: Should You Pay Now or Later?
Rob Swenson, CPA, MST

For growing companies, equity-based compensation is a powerful tool for attracting and retaining executives and other key employees. If you receive an award of restricted stock or purchase shares subject to vesting, consider making an election under Internal Revenue Code Section 83(b) to accelerate taxable income associated with the stock.


Two Ways Section 83(b) Reduces Taxes
Accelerating income may seem illogical, but if the stock’s growth prospects are strong and the risk of forfeiture is low, a Section 83(b) election can generate significant tax savings. Ordinarily, restricted stock is not subject to tax until it vests. However, you will be subject to tax at ordinary rates of the value on the stock’s vesting date (less the purchase price you paid, if any). This can result in a substantial tax bill if the stock has appreciated significantly in value.

A Section 83(b) election can reduce your taxes in two ways:

  • If the stock’s value increases, the election minimizes ordinary income taxes by allowing you to pay the tax on the grant or purchase date value, rather than on the vesting date value. If you purchase the stock at its fair market value, you will recognize zero income on the purchase date; and
  • It accelerates the start of the long-term capital gains holding period to the grant or purchase date, rather than the vesting date. Remember, long-term capital gains rates are lower than ordinary income rates.

Keep in mind that you cannot take too long to decide whether or not to make the election. You have only 30 days from the award or purchase date.

Section 83(b) Election in Action
For example, Heather’s employer grants her 10,000 shares of restricted stock with a fair market value of $1 per share. When the stock vests one year later, its value has grown to $10 per share. Heather sells the stock a year after the vesting date for $25 per share. This assumes that Heather is in the 35% tax bracket and that her long-term capital gains tax rate is 15%. If Heather does not make a Section 83(b) election, no tax will be due when the stock is granted. When the stock vests, she will recognize $100,000 in ordinary income (10,000 × $10), resulting in a $35,000 tax bill. When Heather sells the stock a year later, she will recognize a long-term capital gain on the stock’s additional appreciation of $15 per share, resulting in a $22,500 tax bill (10,000 × $15 × 15%). Heather’s total tax liability is $57,500. Now, let’s assume that Heather files a timely Section 83(b) election when the stock is granted. She will pay tax on $10,000 in ordinary income as of the grant date ($3,500), but when she sells the stock two years later, all of its appreciation in value ($24 per share) will be treated as a long-term capital gain, resulting in a $36,000 tax bill (10,000 × $24 × 15%). Her total tax liability is $39,500. By making the election, Heather enjoys $18,000 in tax savings.

Consider the Risks
Be aware that a Section 83(b) election is not a risk-free decision. If you forfeit the stock or if the stock declines in value, then you will have paid tax on income that you did not receive. You also might end up paying more tax than necessary if tax rates go down. Your tax advisor can help you weigh the pros and cons.

For more information, please contact Rob Swenson at, or call him at 312.670.7444. Visit to learn more about our State and Local Tax Services.
© 2017

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>